原标题：《风景园林》2022-11刊首语 | 郭巍：城市景观的设计与图析
全文刊登于《风景园林》2022年 第11期P8-9 城市景观的设计与图析Mapping and Design of Urban Landscape“析理以辞，解体用图”，古人的这句话充分说明了文字和图纸在表述和分析方面的巨大差暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助异。
同时，现代城市地图也通过分层、分类、叠加、拼贴等方式，将不同的空间信息加以筛选和组合，以达到分析和表达的目的正如James Corner在“The Agency of Mapping: Speculation, Critique and Invention”一文中谈到，通过绘图设置（图框、指北针、坐标系、比例尺、度量衡、投影方法）、信息要素提取（事物、部分、数据）、要素关系绘制（几何空间、分类系谱）3种手段构建起一个设计与分析的工具—图析（mapping），它将“感知暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助/测量”与“设计/发明”这2个环节有效地连接在一起。
According to an ancient Chinese saying, 暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助“theories should be discussed with words and a specific space object should be analyzed with drawings”. This remark shows clearly the huge difference between texts and drawings in deion and analysis. Map is an effective tool to pass on and store space information. China has a long history of cartogr暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助aphy. On the silk maps unearthed from Mawangdui Han tombs, the landforms, river systems, cities and towns are depicted. The “six basic principles for cartography” summarized by Pei Xiu in the Western Jin Dynasty provided a series of standards for the distance, elevation and scale of a map. The numbe暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助r and precision of city maps tremendously increased after the Southern Song Dynasty, and even maps that could precisely describe the urban morphology emerged, such as Map of Pingjiang City and Map of Jingjiang Prefectural City . However, until the late Qing Dynasty, less “accurate” city maps with st暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助rong painting features seemingly constituted the majority.
By contrast, the mapping method of the medieval times was completely abandoned in the renaissance period due to the rediscovery of the Roman Ptolemy’s world map. Gradually, a standard mapping mode was formed in Western Europe, which used the 暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助length, scale and coordinate system to describe the spatial order. In addition, Brunelleschi’s research regarding perspective geometry popularized the geometric cartography and plan, section, and elevation drawings as tools to cognize and reproduce urban landscapes.
The wide variations between texts 暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助and drawings can be directly revealed by two city maps. One is the Completed Map of Ningbo City , which was drawn by means of modern projection and mapping technology in the Republic of China era. Another one is the Land and Water Map of Ningbo Prefectural City , a traditional urban map in the late 暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. The two maps were made at similar times. The former faithfully presents the streets and rivers inside the Ningbo city and farmlands outside the city. However, the latter arbitrarily alters the pear-shaped city outline into a more organic one and the city暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助 position into a north-south direction, and widens the streets and especially the rivers. Moreover, the city walls, small towns outside the city gate, and landmark buildings such as the Drum Tower in the latter map are three-dimensional.
It is beyond doubt that the Land and Water Map of Ningbo Prefec暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助tural City is more an intentional expression of the city by the drafter. The whole city is like an organic combination located in the water network. Regular small cities and axes are originated from the time-honored and rich tradition of inner cities, while the organically changing outer cities and 暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助streets respond to the regional water network environment. The apparently random adjustments are actually based on the structural cognition of the Ningbo city, and reflect the drafter’s perception of the city morphology and assessments of the city landscape.
Modern city maps simplify urban spatial ch暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助aracteristics into some specific physical properties, especially geometric dimensions in a more objective and neutral way, so as to display the city morphology at a particular instant in time. They have been widely applied as a basic tool to describe the city morphology. Bernard Tschumi once said, “暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助The traditional architectural language confines the thoughts, and the plan, section, axial and perspective reproduction methods frequently used by the architects become a cage that limits the architecture. As a result, the architecture is forced to evolve into a pyramid thinking pattern, and any att暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助empts to transcend this limitation and provide other architectural interpretations are considered questioning the traditional architectural language”. Modern city maps also promote and inhibit the development of city landscape research in a similar way.
The landscape architecture society started to c暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助omment on the criticisms of surveying, projection and drawing of modern maps from the geography society since around the 1990s. James Corner remarks that because the landscape architecture society has little knowledge about the high selectivity of the mapping technology in the process of representin暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助g the object world, it takes the map as the fact foundation of plan and design work. Consequently, elements preferentially expressed on the map directly influence the design, and the excluded elements are ignored.
As a complicated system, the urban landscape is characterized by multiple levels and di暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助versity. It is crucial to unveil the spatial hierarchical order and structural logic of complex landscape systems at different scales, in order to achieve systematic and integrated cognition, and to guide the design. Importance has gradually been attached to the diversity of spatial perspectives, th暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助e spatial participation of drafters, the deive effect of non-spatial elements, the process of morphological development, and other features of traditional city maps. In the meantime, modern city maps screen and combine different spatial information through layering, classification, superposition, co暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助llage, etc., so as to achieve the purpose of analysis and expression. As James Corner mentioned in The Agency of Mapping: Speculation, Critique and Invention , a design and analysis tool called mapping was constructed through mapping settings (map frame, compass, coordinate system, scale, measure, p暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助rojection method), information element extraction (objects, segments, data), and element relation drawing (geometric space, hierarchical classification). This tool effectively combines the perception/measurement and design/invention functions.
In this column, the manus involve abundant marvelous anal暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助yses of urban landscape maps, covering Venice of Italy, Rotterdam of the Netherlands, Tenerife of Spain and Bages of Central Catalonia on the European continent, the Greater Bay Area of China, Wuhan, Shenzhen, traditional villages in South Zhejiang and Busan of South Korea on the Asian continent, an暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助d Detroit of the USA. The researchers are from multiple backgrounds, including China, Netherlands, Germany, South Korea, Spain, Australia, Chile, and South Africa. The breadth of the research objects proves the applicability of map analyses. The diversified backgrounds of researchers also demonstrat暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助e that the research results of mapping can be adopted as consensuses in professional fields despite of the difference in space perspectives and space participation arising from various cultures, personal life and working experiences.
本期专题组稿人：郭巍Acquiring editor of the current issue: GUO Wei2022年10月10日暗区突围苹果免越狱辅助October 10, 2022完 整深度 阅读 请参看《风景园林》2022年11期
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